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Basic structure of the centrifugal pump - ZJBetter
The centrifugal pump is composed of six parts, namely: impeller, pump body, pump shaft, bearing, seal ring, stuffing box.

1. The impeller is the core part of the centrifugal pump. It has high speed and output force, and the blades on the impeller play a major role. The impeller must pass the static balance test before assembly. The inner and outer surfaces of the impeller are required to be smooth to reduce the frictional loss of water flow.
2. The pump body is also called the pump casing, which is the main body of the water pump. It plays a supporting and fixing role and is connected with the bracket on which the bearing is installed.
3. The function of the pump shaft is to connect the motor and the motor through a coupling to transmit the torque of the motor to the impeller, so it is the main component for transmitting mechanical energy.
4. The bearing is a component that is sleeved on the pump shaft to support the shaft. There are two types of rolling bearings and sliding bearings. Rolling bearings use butter as a lubricant. It should be appropriate. Generally, the volume is 2/3 ~ 3/4. Too much volume will generate heat, too little and there will be noise and heat! The plain bearing uses transparent oil as a lubricant, and oil is added to the oil level line. Too much oil will leak out and drift along the pump shaft, and too few bearings will overheat and burn out to cause an accident! During the operation of the pump, the bearing temperature is up to 85℃ and generally runs at about 60℃. If the temperature is high, find the cause (whether there are impurities, whether the oil is black, and whether it has water) and handle it in time!
5. Sealing ring is also called leakage reducing ring. The excessive clearance between the impeller inlet and the pump casing causes water in the high-pressure area of the pump to flow to the low-pressure area through this clearance, affecting the water output of the pump and reducing the efficiency! Too little clearance will cause friction between the impeller and the pump casing and cause wear. In order to increase the backflow resistance and reduce the internal leakage, and delay the service life of the impeller and the pump casing, a seal ring is installed at the inner edge of the pump casing and the external assistance of the impeller, and the sealed gap is preferably maintained between 0.25 and 1.10mm.
6. The stuffing box is mainly composed of packing, water-sealing ring, packing tube, packing gland and water-sealing pipe. The function of the stuffing box is mainly to close the gap between the pump casing and the pump shaft, to prevent the water in the pump from flowing to the outside and the outside air to enter the pump. Always keep the vacuum inside the pump! When the pump shaft and the filler friction produce heat, it is necessary to inject water into the water seal ring to cool the filler! Keep the pump running normally. Therefore, special attention must be paid to the inspection of the stuffing box during the running inspection of the pump! The packing needs to be replaced after about 600 hours of operation.
7. Axial force balancing device, During the operation of the centrifugal pump, because the liquid enters the impeller under low pressure and flows out under high pressure, the pressure on both sides of the impeller is different, and an axial thrust pointing in the direction of the inlet will be generated. It causes the axial movement of the rotor, causing wear and vibration, so an axial thrust bearing should be provided to balance the axial force.
Centrifugal pumps can be divided into two categories: vertical centrifugal pumps and horizontal centrifugal pumps according to the installation form.